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Discourse

The→THREE DISCOURSE PRINCIPLES ←[Advanced] •→INFORMATION ORDERING ⇔ [quiz] ←

• Here’s a great lesson on →DISCOURSE MARKERS← courtesy of Kenneth Beare, an ESL teacher, trainer, and content developer. He provides consulting services for English language learning projects through Englishfeed, as well as being the founder of Lingofeeds, dedicated to English for […]

Basic Sentence Structure

•→Basic Sentence Parts← / •→The Parts of Speech←

•→ Randomly-Generated Sentences ←

◊ Compound & complex sentences ↓ Simple & dependent statements.

¤ Basic sentence structure … ⇒[1] ⇔[2] ⇔ [3] ⇐ [syntax]

♦ → Word Order: ↑ Sentence Structure ↑ / ↓ Position […]

Non-finite Verb Forms

¤ Finite & Non-finite Verbs ←[pdf]

¤ Auxiliary Verbs ⇐ “Auxiliaries are required with non-finite verbs. This is their role to mark non-finite verb forms for tense, aspect and voice, which non-finite verbs cannot express. Finite verbs mark these features on their own.”

(Bernard T. O’Dwyer, Modern English Structures: […]

Reference

•→www.chompchomp.com/terms/antecedent.htm⇐

•→Pronouns vs. determiners⇐

•→www.really-learn-english.com/pronoun-exercise.html⇐

¤ DEMOSTRATIVES ‘THIS’ – ‘THAT’ ↓ ‘THESE’ – ‘THOSE’

¤ PERSONALS – POSSESSIVES

There’s a lot of English in this chart, with all these reference words.

I my mine me myself you your yours you yourself he his his him himself she her hers her […]

A symphony of adjectives

•→Adjectives … lists ⇒[01] ⇔ [02]⇐ // •→Top 500 Adjectives⇐

⇒ QUIZ #1 ⇔ QUIZ #2 ⇐

∞ Collocations… Click on ⇒facilities⇐Find the odd one out.

Φ Opposites … ⇒ [01] ⇔ [02] ⇔ [03] ⇔ [04]⇐

•→Softening ⇐[quizzes]

If you use a negative adjective, it […]

Negation

♣ Negation (like asking) is one of the most difficult areas of English ↓

•→http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/negation ⇔ Double Negatives⇐ ∇ Transferred Negation

When we express negative ideas with verbs like think, believe… we prefer to make the first verb negative instead of the second. We shift or transfer the negative from the […]

Ask questions

• Asking questions is another tricky area of English language. The Anglo-link video lesson may give you some insights ↓

⇓ Another video tutorial by Katie [Beta College of English]

◊ Intonation in questions ↓

•→ Question Tags – Intonation […]

Assertive vs Nonassertive forms

¤ Ways of saying . . . ‘YEP!’ ⇓

. . . ‘definitely‘ / ‘of course‘ / ‘sure‘ / ‘naturally‘ / ‘that’s right‘ / ‘I don’t mind if I do‘ / ‘by all means‘ / ‘you bet‘ / ‘you’re on‘ / ‘no problem‘ / ‘affirmative‘ / ‘absolutely‘ […]

Verb tenses & aspects

♣ English Tenses & Aspects . . . →[Basic]← / →[Int.]← / →[Advanced]←

∴ englisch-hilfen special table with all English tenses⇐

∞ Tense consistency … ⇒[QUIZ]⇐

Many learners get mixed up between these two expressions. Listen to Liliane’s free tutorial at Beta College of English ⇓

What’s important […]

The Future

English has several forms which express future events. The form we choose depends on how sure we are that something will happen, whether we want something to happen, or whether we are talking about ourselves or others. ASPECT is much more important than TIME.

⇒Predictions/Statements of fact/Intentions/Arrangements/Scheduled events⇐

[…]

Passive Voice

¤ ACTIVE & PASSIVE TENSES CHART… ⇒[01] ⇔ [02] ⇔ [03] ⇔ [04]⇐

We find an overabundance of the passive voice in sentences created by self-protective business interests, magniloquent educators, and bombastic military writers (who must get weary of this accusation), who use the passive voice to avoid responsibility for actions […]

HAVE/GET something done

To really understand this English structure.

Warning time account for the final score! Leave your comments and tell us your results!

HAVE/GET + something + PAST PARTICIPLE

As we all live in a busy world, we don’t have the time (or skills) to do all the things that we need […]

Determiners & Predeterminers

Determiners are grammar words which come in front of nouns.

Click icon to open a chart with the correct collocations of such words →

Pay attention to the kinds of nouns they go with: countable (singular? plural?) or uncountable?

∞ Quantifiers: ⇓ (a) few, (a) little…

•→Quantifiers: fill in the gaps⇐

•→Determiners […]

Quantifiers

SPELLER

A →quantifier ← is a type of determiner, such as all or many, that indicates quantity.

These items have been argued to correspond to logical quantifiers at the semantic level.

Some Notes on Quantifiers ⇓ [http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu]

Like articles, quantifiers are words that […]

Reporting

A reporting verb is a word which is used to talk about or report on other people’s work. Reporting verbs can be used to great effect, but the difficulty with using them is that there are many, and each of them has a slightly different and often subtle meaning. . […]

Purpose & Result + Relative clauses

¤ FOR + -ing versus TO-infinitive ← ¤ Clauses of purpose

We use clauses of purpose to talk about people’s purposes, the reasons why they do things.

⇒ [quiz 01] ⇔ [quiz 02] ⇔ [quiz 03]⇐

⊗ The infinitive of purpose

The infinitive of purpose can only be used when […]

Adverbials

¤ Adverbs_of time ⇔ [quiz] ⇐

¤ Adverbs of frequency ↓ Position . . .

… always, usually, regularly, normally, often, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, seldom, hardly ever, never . . .

• before the main verb

Adverb of frequency Verb I always get up at 6.45. Peter can usually play football on […]

Prepositions

Prepositions ↑ from David Nicholson

‘ AT’ – ‘ON’ – ‘IN’

All these prepositions are used with expressions of both, time and place. Click below for collocations

• Prepositions of TIME←

Notice we tend to use ‘at‘ with clock times and special periods, […]

Conditionals

A comprehensive Powerpoint presentation on all conditional structures.

Notice there’s an omission near the end (count no. 6:14)

The subject’s missing from the last example (i.e. subject pronoun “I”); ‘mixed conditionals’:

Wish + Past Participle → I wish I hadn’t drunk so much ←

Remember to pause the player when […]

Mind your modals!

Auxiliary, or helping verbs, are used before infinitives to add a different meaning. The following auxiliaries are called ⇒Modal Auxiliaries or Modals⇐

Modal Auxiliaries Meanings / Functions can ability, permission, request, possibility could ability, formal request, possibility shall futurity, willingness, intention, suggestion, insistence should obligation, necessity, expectation, advisability will willingness, intention, prediction, […]