octubre 2019
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A comprehensive Powerpoint presentation on all conditional structures.

Notice there’s an omission near the end (count no. 6:14)

The subject’s missing from the last example (i.e. subject pronoun «I»); ‘mixed conditionals’:

Wish + Past Participle  →  I wish I hadn’t drunk so much   ←

Remember to pause the player when suggested ↓ (before you get the answers!)

∞  ‘If’ & ‘will’  ⇓  . . . [Beta College of English]

•→ Conditons with ‘IF’ ⇐

¤ Conditionals other than ‘if’ . . . ⇒[01] ⇔ [02] [03]

•→Conditionals with Inversion[advanced]

♣  Conditonal sentences – Type I – II – III … ⇒[01] ⇔ [02] [03]

Φ  Mixed conditionals …  ⇒ [01] [02]⇐ (quizzes)

∇   PowerPoint presentation of Conditionals  ↓

•→ ‘If ‘/ ‘In case’_ Conditioned vs. Precautionary Action ⇐[quiz]

¤  Functions/Uses of conditionals

Conditional sentences are very versatile in their functions, which is why they have importance for the language user and learner.

• They are commonly used, for example, in reasoning contexts:

– expressing reasons for a deduction; e.g.: «If he was a doctor, he would have known what ‘haemophilia’ was!»

– expressing causes; e.g.: «If he hadn’t eaten it, he wouldn’t have died.»

– making conditional predictions; e.g.: «If the price of oil keeps rising, the economy will go into recession.»

– offering a premise for a conclusion; e.g.: «If you saw her in the lobby, the plane’s arrived.»

• Other functions of conditionals . . .

Fantasising / Imagining:  «If I had a million pounds, I would…»

Threats and warnings:  «If you come any closer, I’ll…»

– Expressing various emotions such as regret…  «If I hadn’t missed so many lessons, I would have passed the exam.»

…and relief:   «If I had been there a bit earlier, I would have seen the bomb go off!»

– Expressing emphatic absurdity:  «If you’re her mother, I’m the Pope.»

– Politeness mitigator:  «If I may say so, you seem tired.»

– Giving advice ↓


Instead of using a conditional clause containing the word «be», you can sometimes use a phrase consisting of «if» followed by an adjective or a prepositional phrase.

For example, instead of saying «We will send the car if it is necessary,» you can say «We will send the car if necessary

– This unfortunate situation is to be avoided if possible.

If I were innocent, I’d rather be tried here; if guilty, in America.

If in doubt, ask at the local library.

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