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Reference

Pointing

•→www.chompchomp.com/terms/antecedent.htm

Pronouns vs. determiners

•→www.really-learn-english.com/pronoun-exercise.html

¤  DEMOSTRATIVES

‘THIS’ – ‘THAT’  ↓  ‘THESE’ – ‘THOSE’

¤  PERSONALS – POSSESSIVES

There’s a lot of English in this chart, with all these reference words.

I my mine me myself
you your yours you yourself
he his his him himself
she her hers her herself
it its its it itself
we our ours us ourselves
you your yours you yourselves
they their theirs them themselves

 Remember it’s not enough to recognize these words. It takes a lot of practice to use them naturally in conversation.

Here’s what you can do. Take a different person each time, and write five statements following the example:

I’ve got a house This is my house It is mine
It belongs to me I like it myself.

 

You’ve got a house This is … It is…
It belongs to… You like it …

 

He’s This is … It is…
It belongs to… He likes it …

 

She’s This … It…
It… She …

 

It’s

 

We’ve

 

You’ve

 

They’ve

poss_pronouns•→[quiz 01]  ⇔ [quiz 02] ⇔ [quiz 03]←

∇  Personal Pronouns  ↓  [⇒quiz⇐]

hug

     ⇔  Reciprocal Pronouns ⇐

mirror

     ≈

       ⇔  Reflexive Pronouns  ↓

•→Types of pronouns

lexical_banner

REFERENCE (definition): The relationship between a grammatical unit that refers to (or stands in for) another grammatical unit, usually a pronoun and a noun.

When we are writing or giving a spoken presentation, we may prefer using lexical reference words instead of pronouns; this often makes our discourse easier to follow, and it’s a good way to avoid misunderstandings resulting from ambiguous / remote / vague reference . . .

– Ambiguous reference occurs when a pronoun can refer to more than one antecedent.

– Remote reference occurs when a pronoun is so far away from its antecedent that the relationship is unclear.

– Vague reference  occurs when a pronoun refers to a word that is only implied, not stated.

    • Ambiguous pronoun reference  occurs when pronouns such as ‘he,’ ‘she,’ ‘it,’ ‘they,’ ‘this,’ and ‘that’ don’t refer clearly to one thing. Suppose a friend of yours made the claim that

      Teddie never argues with his father when he‘s drunk.

      As the claim is stated, you don’t know who is drunk. Is it Teddie or his father? Amphiboly exists because the word ‘he’ is ambiguous. The sentence is poorly worded, and it’s impossible to tell what it means.”
      (George W. Rainbolt and Sandra L. Dwyer, Critical Thinking: The Art of Argument. Wadsworth, 2012)

    • “He started the car, put the heater on defrost and waited for the windshield to clear, feeling Marguerite’s eyes on him. But when he finally turned to look at her, she was peering out the small patch of windshield that had defogged. ‘I think it‘s going to clear,’ she said.”Ambiguous pronoun reference, his mother piped up from the back, her first critical observation of the new day. Is she talking about the weather or the windshield?
      (Richard Russo, That Old Cape Magic. Knopf, 2009)
    • They as a Generic Pronoun
      “No singular 3rd person pronoun in English is universally accepted as appropriate for referring to a human when you don’t want to specify sex. . . . The pronoun most widely used in such cases is they, in a secondary sense that is interpreted semantically as singular.”
      (R. Huddleston and G.K. Pullum, A Student’s Introduction to English Grammar. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)
    • A person starts dying when they stop dreaming.
  • Back Reference and Forward Reference
    “In grammatical analysis, the term reference is often used to state a relationship of identity which exists between grammatical units, e.g. a pronoun ‘refers’ to a noun or noun phrase. When the reference is to an earlier part of the discourse, it may be called a ‘back-reference’ (or anaphora); correspondingly, reference to a later part of the discourse may be called ‘forward-reference’ (or cataphora).”
    (David Crystal, A Dictionary of Linguistics. Blackwell, 1997)
by , [About.com Guide]

∞  Coherence: Anaphora and reference ↓

→ http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/tta/anaphora/anaphora.htm#lexical

→ http://www.uefap.com/listen/refer/refer.htm

⇓    Indefinite Pronouns    ⇓

ind_pro

indefinitep

◊  SOME (-one/-thing/-where) – ANY (-one/-thing/-where) – NO (-one/-thing/-where) ↓

you

⇐britishcouncil/indefinite-pronouns

•  More quizzes  . . .  →[01]← / →[02]← / →[03]← / →[04]← 

 

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