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Purpose & Result + Relative clauses

¤  FOR + -ing   versus  TO-infinitive ←
¤  Clauses of purpose

We use clauses of purpose to talk about people’s purposes, the reasons why they do things.

⇒ [quiz 01] ⇔ [quiz 02] ⇔ [quiz 03]⇐ 

⊗  The infinitive of purpose

The infinitive of purpose can only be used when the subject of the main clause and the subject of the purpose clause are the same:

Why did you get up so early?      – To go jogging.

– Why are you going to the chemist’s?    – To buy some cough medicine.

⊗   Clauses of purpose with “so that”

We use  ‘so that…’

a)  When the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the purpose clause:

«The presenter spoke very slowly and clearly so that/in order that everybody could/would understand him.» ( the presenter – everybody = two different subjects)

«Jenny gave Mark some money so that he could buy some new shoes.»

In informal English “so” is commonly used instead of “so that/in order that”.

 «He wants a big car so he can impress his friend.» 

b)  With   “can” and “could”   (so that  …  can/can’t/could/couldn’t…):

«He’s learning German so that he can work in Germany. «

«The bank robbers tied up the manager so that he couldn’t escape.»

«That pop star has a high wall around his house so that photographers can’t get in. «

c) When the purpose clause is negative   (so that … won’t/wouldn’t…)

«I got there early so that I wouldn’t have to stand.»

«They’re staying in a hotel next summer so that they won’t have to cook.»

⊕  Tenses used in purpose clauses with “so that”

When we use a present or future tense in the main clause, we use so that ……will/won’t/can/can’t in the purpose clause.

«I have lent Richard €300 so that he can buy/will be able to buy a nice winter coat.»

With a past tense in the main clause, we use so that  ……  could(n’t)/would(n’t) in the purpose clause.

«I lent Richard €300 so that he could buy/would be able to buy a nice winter coat.» 

⊕  Notes:

«She worked hard so that/in order that she would pass all her examinations before the end of the semester.»     (the subject is the same:  she)

With the same subject the infinitive construction is more common than the “so that/in order that” construction.

«She worked hard in order to/so as to pass all her examinations before the end of the semester.» 

In spoken English “to” is more common than “in order to/so as to”.

 «We have to hurry to get there before the beginning of the meeting». 

However, “to” cannot be used with a negative.

 «He spoke in a low voice in order/so as not to disturb us.»

(Not: *’He spoke in a low voice not to disturb us‘)

But you can always use the infinitive construction with the verb «AVOID«:

«He set off early to avoid driving at night.»

 “not to” can be used to express alternatives:

 «I went to the conference not to give a paper but to present a poster.» 

∞   Purpose vs Cause/Effect . . .  ⇐
♦  Result  clauses  ⇓  [quiz⇐]

¤  Relative Clauses …  ⇒[01] ⇔ [02]⇐relative-clauses

In this overview of relative clauses, Alex looks at identifying (or ‘restrictive’) and non-identifying (or ‘non-restrictive’) clauses, relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) and how to use commas when using relative pronouns in your writing  ↓

[quiz 01] ⇔ [quiz 02] [quiz 03]⇐ 

¤  Reduced Relative Clauses ↓ [Brian Rhodes makes an advanced lesson easy]

φ  To avoid ambiguity, the relative pronoun should be placed as near as possible to its antecedent. Compare:

The boy who won the gold medal is the son of my neighbor, Peter. (= The boy won the gold medal.)

The boy is the son of my neighbor Peter who won the gold medal. (= Peter won the gold medal.)

¤  Participle clauses  ↓

Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause which enables us to say information in a more economical way. We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject.

Φ  The meaning and use of participle clauses

Participle clauses give information about condition, reason, result or time:

• Condition  (in place of an if-condition):

‘Looked after carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.’

Compare: If you look after it carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

• Reason  (in place of words like ‘so’ or ‘therefore’):

‘Wanting to speak to him about the contract, I decided to arrange a meeting.’

Compare: I wanted to speak to him about the contract so I decided to arrange a meeting.

• Result  (in place of words like ‘because’ or ‘as a result’):

‘I had no time to read my book, having spent so long doing my homework.’

Compare: I had no time to read my book because I had spent so long doing my homework.

• Time  (in place of words like ‘when’, ‘while’ or ‘as soon as’):

‘Sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.’

Compare: While I was sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

• Participle Clauses explained . . . →[01]← →[02]← / →[03]←

dangling-modifiers⇒ Quiz 1 ⇔ Quiz 2 ⇔  Quiz 3 ⇔ Quiz 4⇐

∞ Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers ⇒[01][02][03]⇐

  •→sentencecombining/addingparticipialphrases.htm

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