Mayo 2017
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⇐ There are many ways of laughing…

…many kinds of laughter ⇐

¤→Shiny shiny⇐(a challenge for translators)⇒

Φ ‘Una lección para guiris’: ⇒attitudinal idiomatic expressions⇐

Survivors of several foreign invasions ↓ they’re also called STRONG verbs


Functional language

•→ English greetings ←[introducing yourself & other people]

← There are many ways of bidding someone farewell →

Some are very specific;

others restricted to some territories.

¤ Vagueness in spoken English


•→⇐ / •→MacMillan Online Dictionary⇐

⇐ Tips & links


∞ Minimal Pairs ⇒[01] ⇔ [02] ⇔ [03]⇐

• Find the odd one out: which word does not rhyme with the others?

⇒[01] ⇔ [02] ⇔ [03] ⇔ [04]⇐

Abril 26th, 2015 | Tags: , , | Category: ENGLISH, PRONUNCIATION | 10 comments


Learning strategies or study skills ⇑ determine the approach for achieving the learning objectives. The strategies are usually tied to your needs and interests to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles.

¤ Learning strategies ← ¤ Guessing meaning from context ←(A favourite strategy)

•→Better […]

Listening skills

The best way to improve is to listen to English. A lot. There’s no way around it; you have to spend hours and hours listening to people speaking English. Listen to things that interest you. If you don’t enjoy something, it’s going to be hard for you to continue. You’ll get bored and […]

Strong auxiliaries

Auxiliary verbs are needed in English for both questions and negative statements. They are grammar words, and typically de-emphasized in speech by being uttered in a very soft voice. They often appear as question-tags in everyday conversation… “You know what I mean, don’t you?”

When we write in […]



• Here’s a great lesson on →DISCOURSE MARKERS← courtesy of Kenneth Beare, an ESL teacher, trainer, and content developer. He provides consulting services for English language learning projects through Englishfeed, as well as being the founder of Lingofeeds, dedicated to English for […]

Basic Sentence Structure

•→Basic Sentence Parts← / •→The Parts of Speech←

•→ Randomly-Generated Sentences ←

◊ Compound & complex sentences ↓ Simple & dependent statements.

¤ Basic sentence structure … ⇒[1] ⇔[2] ⇔ [3] ⇐ [syntax]

♦ → Word Order: ↑ Sentence Structure ↑ / ↓ Position […]

Spelling & Punctuation + Abbreviations

•→Sounds of The Alphabet⇐

¤ English Spelling

Chaotic though it may seem, the English spelling system has its own rules, like most languages do. English borrowed thousands of words from all over the world, which is why there are so many exceptions.

Φ Spelling Rules →[01]← / →[02]←

•→ […]

Delexical verbs

delexical verbs

¤ Markéta Guňková: Why teach delexical verbs?

(1) frequency: Delexical verbs are common structure in English, either in everyday conversations (have a drink, give a call, take a break) or in academic English (make a contribution, give a speech, do research).

(2) fluency: delexical structures contribute to the impression of fluency […]


In linguistics, one of many styles or varieties of language determined by such factors as social occasion, purpose, and audience. More generally, register is also used to indicate degrees of formality in language use.

Formal Style Informal Style Legal English Levels of Usage ¤ Formal & informal English: explanations & tips…

Abril 15th, 2015 | Tags: , , | Category: ENGLISH, FunctionaLang | Leave a comment


Film Words with Definitions: ⇒[01] ⇔ [02] ⇔ [03] ⇔ [quiz 01] ⇔ [quiz 02]⇐


• Movie QUIZZES . . . ⇒[01] ⇔ [02] ⇔ [03] ⇔ [04] ⇔ [05] ⇔ [dominoes]⇐

English with Jo … ⇑ Intermediate / […]

The Human Body

•→ ⇐

• Idioms related to the body . . . →[01] ⇔ [02] ⇔ [03] ⇔ [04]←

· · · click the parts for idioms . . . →[01]← / →[02]← / →[03]←

→[quiz 01]← / →[quiz 02]← [body idioms]


Non-finite Verb Forms

¤ Finite & Non-finite Verbs ←[pdf]

¤ Auxiliary Verbs ⇐ “Auxiliaries are required with non-finite verbs. This is their role to mark non-finite verb forms for tense, aspect and voice, which non-finite verbs cannot express. Finite verbs mark these features on their own.”

(Bernard T. O’Dwyer, Modern English Structures: […]

Not bad!

Unlike Spaniards, who are prone to exaggeration in their everyday remarks, Britons (not Americans!) tend to prefer understatements. Take a movie: while it may well be appraised as ‘Great!’ or ‘Brilliant!‘ by a Spanish national, it might simply be assessed as ‘Not bad’ (not less appraisal to be inferred from the lips of […]



•→Pronouns vs. determiners⇐




There’s a lot of English in this chart, with all these reference words.

I my mine me myself you your yours you yourself he his his him himself she her hers her […]

Rhythm & Stress

Stress: an essential element of rhythm, which is the most distinctive feature of the English language. Word stress is not used in Japanese or Spanish, where each syllable is pronounced with eq-ual em-pha-sis.

The biggest difference in the “music” of languages is the way we speak syllables. All languages can divide […]

Verbal Communication

THE LIVING SISTERS ⇓ Video by Michel Gondry [2011]

How are you doing? How are you doing? I’ll be fine, how about you? I’m fine too

How is it going? How is it going? Yes it goes, what about you? It goes for me too.

A symphony of adjectives

•→Adjectives … lists ⇒[01] ⇔ [02]⇐ // •→Top 500 Adjectives⇐

⇒ QUIZ #1 ⇔ QUIZ #2 ⇐

∞ Collocations… Click on ⇒facilities⇐Find the odd one out.

Φ Opposites … ⇒ [01] ⇔ [02] ⇔ [03] ⇔ [04]⇐

•→Softening ⇐[quizzes]

If you use a negative adjective, it […]

… _ ed

The (-ed) ending of regular past forms has three sound realizations: [-d] [-t] [-id], depending on the sounds just before it.

• If the verb ends in a voiced phoneme, the ‘-ed’ ending sounds like [-d]

• If the verb ends in a voiceless consonant […]